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P & A Notes Chapters 1 & 2

by Jodi Hinsdale

February 07, 2011

Chapter 1

Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology

* Study of structure and function of the human body

* Homeostasis must be met if the organism is to continue living.
* The maintenance of a stable internal environment.
* All conditions must be stable.
Like what???

* Study of the body dates back to our early ancestors.

* They believed the body was controlled by spirits and the super - natural.

* What sparked this interest in P&A?

* When people got the idea that natural forces could be controlled by humans --- then modern science had its beginning.

* Why is it hard to separate Anatomy and Physiology?

* Anatomy -- science that deals with structure of body parts and arrangement.

* Physiology -- science of the function of the body parts.

* Morphology -- science that deals with the way the parts form in the embryo.

Characteristics of Life
1. Movement
2. Responsiveness - sense change and respond
3. Growth
4. Reproduction
5. Digestion
6. Absorption - of digested food
7. Respiration
8. Circulation - movement of substances through
body by means of body fluid.
9. Assimilation - changing substances that are
absorbed into chemically different forms.
10. Excretion - removal of wastes.

* Everything an organism does depends upon metabolism. Chemical changes/reactions in your body that gives us energy.

* The goal of all body parts, with the exception of the reproductive organs is the maintenance of life.

Needs of an Organism
1. Water - chemical reactions take place in water, is the most abundant chemical in the body.
2. Food - energy, building and regulating reactions.
3. Oxygen - respiration
4. Heat
5. Pressure - breathing


Levels of Complexity
1. Atoms
2. Molecules
3. Macromolecules
4. Organelles
5. Cells
6. Tissues
7. Organs
8. Organ System
9. Organism

Tissues - Four types in the human body;
1. epithelial - covers and protects surfaces, inside and out.
2. Connective - joins parts together, provides support.
3. Muscular - Movement
4. Nervous - Coordinates body responds to stimuli.

Organs - heart, lungs, and liver
Organ Systems;
1. integumentary
2. skeletal
3. muscular
4. nervous
5. endocrine
6. digestive
7. respiratory
8. circulatory
9. lymphatic
10. urinary
11. reproductive

Differentiation - Takes place in very early stages of embryonic development. Groups of cells of common origin become specialized for certain functions.

Body Organization
Body is divided into an axial portion ( head, neck, and trunk ), and an appendicular portion ( arms and legs ).

In the axial portion of the body there are two major cavities -
* Dorsal Cavity - which is divided into the cranial cavity and spinal cavity.
* Ventral Cavity - Consists of a thoracic cavity and an abdominopelvic cavity.
( abdominal and pelvic cavity )
* The thoracic cavity is separate from the abdominal cavity by the diaphragm.
* Thoracic cavity includes the pleural and pericardial cavities.
*** Read over anatomical terminology page 14 of text.

Chapter 2

Matter - anything that has weight and takes up space.
solids, liquids, and gases
* Matter is composed of the elements, 92 of them occur in nature.
* About 20 of these elements are needed by living things.
* Most abundant is oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen.
* Elements are composed of atoms

Atoms - nucleus contains protons ( + ) and neutrons ( 0 ). electrons ( - ) orbit around the nucleus.

* In a neutral atom number of electrons = number of protons.

* Atomic number, = the number of protons.

* Atomic weight = number of protons + number of neutrons.

* Isotope - Atoms of the same elements always have the same number of protons, but sometimes have different number of neutrons,. this would give it a different atomic weight.

Bonding of Atoms - :
When combining atoms either gain, lose or share electrons.
* Ionic bonds - are formed by ions (charged atoms ) with a + and - charge that have been attracted to one another.

*Covalent bonds - When two atoms share an electron or pair so that each reaches a stable form.

Molecule - Two or more atoms joined together
Compound - Two or more atoms of different elements combine
Formulas -
* Molecular formula - shows number and kind of atoms in a molecule. ( C6H12O6 )

* Structural formula - shows number and kind of atoms as well as how they are bonded and arranged. ( see fat molecules page 44 )

Chemical Reactions:
* Synthesis - when atoms combine to make a more complex structure.
( 2H2 + O2 = 2H2O )
* Decomposition reaction - breakdown of molecules into simpler forms.
( 2H2O --energy-- H2 + O2 )

Electrolytes - substances that ionize in water.
( pg. 39 acids and bases )

Inorganic Substances: ( usually do not contain carbon )
1. Water - * 2/3 wt. of an adult human.
* Most metabolic reactions occur in
* Plays an important role in the
transport of blood.
2. Oxygen - is used by cellular organelles in the process of releasing energy from glucose,
( cell respiration )
3. Carbon Dioxide - waste product of cellular respiration.

4. Inorganic salts - play role in:
Metabolic process
Muscle contraction
Conduction of nerves

Organic Substances
1. Carbohydrates - much of cell energy contain C, H, O. Have twice as much H as O.
( C6H12O6 )
* Monosaccharides - has 6 carbon
glucose, fructose, galactose

* Disaccharide's - glucose + fructose = sucrose ( table sugar )

glucose + galactose = lactose ( milk sugar )

glucose + glucose = maltose

* Polysaccharides -
starch ( plants )
glycogen (animals)
Cellulose (plants)

2. Lipids - composed of C, H, O. The O to H level is low when compared to the carbs.
( C57H110O6 )
* Basic building block is glycerol and fatty acids.
* Each glycerol is combined with three fatty acids.

3. Proteins - contain C, H, O, N and sometimes S.

* Basic building block is the amino acid.
* Enzymes are proteins.
* Can act as an energy source.

4. Nucleic Acids - DNA and RNA

DNA - holds the information needed to construct specific protein molecules
( enzymes ) which control all metabolic reactions.

RNA - helps to synthesize these molecules.

* Protein synthesis and heredity are controlled by the nucleic acids.

* The basic building block is the nucleotide.


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